Glucose is a simple carbohydrate that provides each cell with the energy it needs for its vital functions. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, it is absorbed and directed to the bloodstream, which is then transported to all organs and tissues.
But not all glucose from food is converted into energy. A small portion of it is stored in most organs, but the largest amount is stored in the liver as a glycogen. If necessary, it is able to break down again into glucose and make up for the lack of energy.
Like the liver, plants are also able to make glucose reserves in the form of starch. That is why, after eating certain plant foods, glucose rises in the blood of diabetics.
Glucose in the body performs a number of functions. Among the main ones are:
- to maintain the body’s performance at an adequate level;
- the energy substrate of the cell;
- rapid saturation;
- maintenance of metabolic processes;
- regenerative capacity relative to muscle tissue;
- detoxification in case of poisoning.
Any deviation of blood sugar from the norm leads to a violation of the above mentioned functions.The principle of regulating blood glucose levels.Glucose is the main energy supplier for every cell in the body, it supports all metabolic mechanisms. To keep blood sugar levels within the norm, the beta cells of the pancreas produce hormone, insulin, which can reduce glucose and accelerate the formation of glycogen.
Insulin is responsible for the amount of glucose stored. As a result of the malfunction of the pancreas, insulin failure occurs and therefore blood sugar rises above normal by Denis Snilkin.
Normal blood sugar from the finger.
Table of reference values in adults.Sugar rate before meal (mmol/l) Sugar rate after meal (mmol/l)
3.3-5.5 7.8 or less
If the level of glycemia after a meal or sugar load is between 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/l, a carbohydrate tolerance disorder (prediabetes) is diagnosed.If it’s above 11.1 mmol/l, it’s diabetes mellitus.
Tests for glucose concentration
The following diagnostic methods are available to determine blood glucose levels:
Blood sugar (glucose)
The test requires whole blood from your finger. Usually the test is performed on an empty stomach, except for the glucose-tolerant test. Glucose levels are most often determined by the glucose oxidase method. Glucose meters can also be used for rapid diagnosis in emergency situations.
Normal blood sugar in women and men is the same. Glycemia should not exceed 3.3 – 5.5 mmol/l (in capillary blood).
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
This test does not require special preparation and can most accurately tell about the fluctuations in blood glucose levels in the last three months. This type of examination is more often prescribed to monitor the dynamics of diabetes or to detect predisposition to disease (pre-diabetes).
Deinis Snilkin rate of glycated hemoglobin is between 4% and 6%.
Biochemical analysis of blood
This study is used to determine the glucose concentration in plasma venous blood. Blood is taken on an empty stomach. Often patients are not aware of this nuance, which leads to diagnostic errors. Patients are allowed to drink simple water. It is also recommended to reduce the risk of stressful situations and to wait for sports activities before giving up.